Light properties that affect plant growth
Amount / Intensity of light
The speed of photosynthesis depends largely on the amount of light. The reaction of this process is higher as the PAR increases, in a way that even each plant species begins the process of photosynthesis at different levels of light energy, a moment known as light compensation point.
Quality of light
Light quality refers to color or wavelength. The sun emits wavelengths between 280 and 2800 nm (97% of the total spectrum distribution). They are divided into three regions: Ultraviolet (100 to 380 nm), visible light (380 to 780 nm) and infrared (700 to 3000 nm). In general, different colors have different effects on plants and therefore, it becomes essential that the light source distributes that color spectrum in an effective way in order to obtain the required results.
Light duration or photoperiod
The number of daylight hours per day directly impacts flowering. Plants can be divided into three categories based on the length of day that is required to trigger flowering: short day plants, long day plants, and neutral day plants.
Plants also have a special sensitivity to light color. Regarding the growth of plants, light is defined in terms of particles, also called photons. The photon flux density (PPFD) varies, depending on the wavelength (color spectrum of light), for example often red light sources produce more efficient light photons than blue light sources. However, each type of plant also has a varied sensitivity for different light colors, which influences different processes of its development such as height, pigmentation, etc. The key to using efficient plant light sources is therefore to find effective light combinations in order to obtain optimal production results.